What is Diabetes?

Diabetes Mellitus is considered the scientific name to the even more commonly known Diabetic. Its name perfectly explains the observable symptoms with this disease. Diabetes has long been made from the Greek phrase Diabanein meaning “to feed” in this instance mentioning the surplus urination as well as the word Mellitus in Latin means “Sweetened with Honey”, talking about the existence of excessive sugar.

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Normal, High, and Low Testosterone Levels

Testosterone Levels are helpful in evaluating abnormalities with sex characteristics. Testosterone Levels are also helpful in diagnosing precocious puberty, virilizing syndromes in the female, and infertility in the male. Testosterone Levels may also be used as a tumor marker for rare tumors of the ovary and testicle.


Androgens include Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and testosterone. In the adrenal glands, DHEA is produced in the process of making cortisol and aldosterone. DHEA is also produced de novo by the testes or the ovaries. DHEA is the precursor of androstenedione, which is the precursor of testosterone (and estrogen).

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Androstenedione, Dehydroepiandrosterone, and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate

Androstenedione (AD), Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate ester (DHEA S) are known as Androstenediones (ADs). Androstenediones are precursors of Testosterone and Estrone. Androstenediones and are made in the gonads and the adrenal gland. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal secretion of Androstenediones. The ADs are often elevated in cases of hirsutism and virilization.

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Newborn Metabolic Screening

Newborn metabolic screening is the practice of testing every newborn for certain harmful or potentially fatal disorders that are not otherwise apparent at birth. Newborn screening tests take place before the newborn leaves the hospital. Babies are tested to identify serious or life-threatening (and for the most part preventable or treatable) diseases before symptoms begin. These diseases are usually rare. However, if they are not accurately diagnosed and treated, they can cause mental retardation, severe illness, and premature death in newborns. Many of these are metabolic disorders, often called “inborn errors of metabolism.” Other disorders that may be detected through screening are endocrine or hematologic. In most states, this testing is mandatory. More than 98% of all children born in the United States are tested for these disorders.

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Lipase Test

Lipase Test is usually used to find out if a patient have high Lipase levels in the blood as a result of acute pancreatitis. Lipase is an enzyme that catalysts the process of breaking down triglycerides and other fats into fatty acids. Pancreas is the gland which secretes Lipase. As with blood amylase, damage to Pancreatic Acinar Cells cause blood lipase levels to increase. Unlike Amylase Test, however, Lipase Test is more specific in the evaluation of pancreatic disease. Continue reading “Lipase Test” »


Amylase Blood Test

Amylase Blood Test is helpful when it comes to detecting and monitoring the clinical course of pancreatitis. It is frequently ordered when a patient presents with acute abdominal pain.The Amylase Blood Test, which is easy and rapidly performed, is most specific for pancreatitis. Pancreatic Acinar Cells normally secrete Amylase to the pancreatic duct, and from there Amylase travels the duodenum. Once in the intestine it aids in the catabolism of carbohydrates to their component simple sugars.

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Chorionic Villus Sampling

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is performed in women whose unborn child may be at risk for a life-threatening or life-altering genetic defect. This includes women who (1) are older than 35 years at the time of pregnancy, (2) have had frequent spontaneous abortions, (3) have had previous pregnancies with fetuses or infants with chromosomal or genetic defects (e.g., Down syndrome), or (4) have a genetic defect themselves (e.g., hemoglobinopathy).

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