Ammonia Levels

Ammonia Levels are helpful to support the diagnosis of severe liver diseases (fulminant hepatitis or cirrhosis), and for surveillance of these diseases. Ammonia levels are also used in the diagnosis and follow-up of hepatic encephalopathy.
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Fibrinogen

Fibrinogen (or Factor I) is of the coagulation factors and it is essential to the blood-clotting mechanism. It is part of the “common pathway” (fourth reaction) in the coagulation system. Fibrinogen is converted to fibrin by the action of thrombin during the coagulation process. Fibrinogen, which is produced by the liver, is also an acute-phase […]
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INR Levels and Prothrombin Time

The hemostasis and coagulation system is a homeostatic balance between factors encouraging clotting and the factors encouraging clot dissolution. The first reaction of the body to active bleeding is blood vessel constriction. In small vessel injury, this may be enough to stop bleeding. In large vessel injury, hemostasis is required to form a clot that […]
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Activated Clotting Time

Activated Clotting Time (ACT) is a test which measures the time for whole blood to clot after the addition of particulate activators. Like the activated partial thromboplastin time, Activated Clotting Time measures the ability of the intrinsic pathway (reaction 1) to begin clot formation by activating factor XII. By checking the blood clotting status with ACT, […]
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5’-Nucleotidase

5’-Nucleotidase is an enzyme specific to the liver. The 5’-nucleotidase level is elevated in patients with liver diseases, especially those associated with cholestasis. It provides information similar to Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP). However, ALP is not specific to the liver.
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Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT)

Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) a.k.a. Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGTP) is an enzyme which plays a rule in the process of transferring amino acids and peptides among the cellular membrane. GGT may also play a rule in glutathione metabolism. GTT is exits in the liver and biliary tract at very high concentrations. GTT is is a sensitive indicator of […]
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Aspartate Aminotransferase

Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme which exists in very high levels within highly metabolic tissue. This includes liver cells, tissues of the heart, and skeletal muscle cells. Aspartate Aminotransferase is found in a lower concentrations in Red Blood Cells, and tissues of the kidneys and pancreas. When disease or injury affects the cells of […]
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Alanine Aminotransferase

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme that is found predominantly in the liver; lesser quantities are found in the kidneys, heart, and skeletal muscle. Injury or disease affecting the liver parenchyma will cause a release of this hepatocellular enzyme into the bloodstream, thus elevating serum ALT levels.
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