Biophysical Profile

Biophysical Profile (BPP) advantage is that assessment of variable factors of fetal biophysical activity are more reliable than examination of a single parameter (e.g., fetal heart rate). Indications for BPP include postdate pregnancy, maternal hypertension, diabetes mellitus, vaginal bleeding, maternal Rh factor sensitization, maternal history of stillbirth, and premature rupture of membranes. The BPP is probably more useful in identifying a fetus that is in jeopardy than in predicting future fetal well-being. Testing usually begins at about 32 weeks, but can be done earlier if maternal complications exist.

Continue reading “Biophysical Profile” »

 

Amniocentesis Test

Amniocentesis test is performed on women to gather information about the fetus. Fetal maturity, fetal distress, and risk for respiratory distress syndrome can be assessed. Genetic and chromosomal abnormalities can be identified. Maternal-fetal Rh incompatibility can be diagnosed. The sex of the child can be ascertained. This is important for a mother carrying a sex-linked gene. Neural tube defects can also be recognized. The test is performed on mothers whose pregnancies are considered to be high risk. These may include diabetic mothers, very obese mothers, older mothers (over 35 to 40 years) especially if there is a family history of trisomy 21, mothers with repeated spontaneous abortions, mothers whose prior children have genetic defects, and mothers in a couple in which either the mother or the father is a carrier for genetic defects. This test is also done on women who have an abnormal obstetric ultrasound.

Continue reading “Amniocentesis Test” »

 

Contraction Stress Test

The Contraction Stress Test (CST) is a method to evaluate the viability of a fetus. It documents the ability of the placenta to provide an adequate blood supply to the fetus. The CST can be used to evaluate any high-risk pregnancy in which fetal well-being may be threatened. These pregnancies include those marked by diabetes, hypertensive disease of pregnancy (toxemia), intrauterine growth restriction, Rh-factor sensitization, history of stillbirth, postmaturity, or low estriol levels.The CST, frequently called the oxytocin challenge test (OCT), is a relatively noninvasive test of fetoplacental adequacy used in the assessment of high-risk pregnancy. Other tests used to evaluate the fetoplacental unit include Alpha-fetoprotein, Amniocentesis, Biophysical Profile, Estriol Excretion, Fetoscopy, Nonstress Test, Obstetric Ultrasound, and Pregnanediol.

Continue reading “Contraction Stress Test” »

 

Fetal Nonstress Test

The Fetal Nonstress Test (NST) is a method to evaluate the viability of a fetus. It documents the placenta’s ability to provide an adequate blood supply to the fetus. The NST can be used to evaluate any high-risk pregnancy in which fetal well-being may be threatened. These pregnancies include those marked by diabetes, hypertensive disease of pregnancy (toxemia), intrauterine growth restriction, Rh-factor sensitization, history of stillbirth, postmaturity, or low estriol levels.

Continue reading “Fetal Nonstress Test” »

 

Estradiol, Estriol, and Estrogen Levels

Estradiol, Estriol, and Estrogen measurements are used to evaluate sexual maturity, menstrual problems, and fertility problems in females. Estrogen Levels are also used in the evaluation of males with gynecomastia or feminization syndromes. In pregnant women it is used to indicate fetal-placental health. In patients with estrogen-producing tumors it can be used as a tumor marker.
Continue reading “Estradiol, Estriol, and Estrogen Levels” »

 

Human Placental Lactogen

Human Placental Lactogen (hPL) test is used to evaluate the adequacy of the placenta in high-risk pregnancies.The human placenta secretes several types of hormones which are homologous to the hormones of the Anterior Pituitary. Human Placental Lactogen (hPL), whose task is to maintain the pregnancy, is structurally similar to both human prolactin and growth hormone. This cause Human Placental Lactogen to have stimulating nature on both lactogenic and growth hormones.

Continue reading “Human Placental Lactogen” »